Function & Strategy

Fundamental links between biology and design.

In order to practice biomimicry, it’s important to first understand the concept of function. Function is an essential underpinning of biomimicry and is one element that distinguishes biomimetic design from biophilic and biomorphic design. Instead of looking simply at the visual and aesthetic qualities of the biological world, biomimicry focuses on learning from how living things meet specific functions.

What are functions and strategies?

 A function, by definition, is the purpose of something. In the context of biomimicry, function refers to the role played by an organism’s adaptations or behaviors that enable it to survive. Importantly, function can also refer to something you need your design solution to do.
 Organisms meet functional needs through biological strategies. A biological strategy is a characteristic, mechanism, or process that performs a function for an organism. It’s an adaptation the organism has in order to survive.


 One purpose of polar bear fur is to keep the polar bear warm. Stated in a more technical way, the function of the bear’s fur is to insulate or to conserve heat.

So, the polar bear’s fur is a strategy for insulation, but, more specifically, the characteristics of the polar bear’s fur are what make it especially good insulation. Studying how polar bear fur works could lead to the development of better insulation for human needs, such as outerwear, buildings, or other applications. all the global problems our planet faces today, communities of people concerned with them are growing to prevent the negative impact.

Identifying functions 

Understanding the concepts of function and strategy will help you find biological information that is relevant to your design challenge. When beginning a design challenge, the most important thing to consider first is “What function do you want to solve for?” Rather than thinking about what you want to make, ask yourself  “What do I want my design to DO?”

For example, you wouldn’t ‘ask’ nature how to make make a fan. That doesn’t make any sense. Instead you might ask “How does nature move air?” or “How does nature cool?” It is often helpful to come up with a few variations on your “How” question, if possible. Doing so enables you to explore the functional challenge from different angles. (Moving air is just one way of cooling, and can serve other functions as well.)

Asking “What do you want your design to DO?” is a key step in doing biomimicry. Carefully choosing the verb that completes the question, “How does nature…?” will set you up for success when you start looking for biological models. That verb is the function you are looking for in nature.

For example…

  • Do you want to design a bicycle helmet?

  • Or do you really want to design a way to protect a bicyclist’s head from impact?

Phrasing your goal the second way opens up your mind to new approaches to your challenge and also the possibility that your design may look nothing like a current helmet. Once you ask “How does nature protect from impact?”, you can search for organisms or systems in nature that perform the same function.

The Biomimicry Taxonomy

Taxonomy is the science of classifying life. Biologists name and identify organisms, grouping and categorizing them into a nested hierarchy of taxonomic ranks (domains, kingdoms, etc., down to genus and species) based on evolutionary relationships. Today the word “taxonomy” is also starting to be used to describe any system of classification, as it is below. 

The Biomimicry Taxonomy is a classification system the Biomimicry Institute developed to organize biological strategies by the functions they serve. It is also the underlying structure for AskNature, the world’s most comprehensive library (in database form) of biological solutions applicable to human design challenges.

When identifying the function(s) your design needs to serve, the Taxonomy can be a helpful reference. It will help you better navigate the content on AskNature and also provide keywords that may help you understand your challenge differently or search more effectively for biological information.

© Biomimicry Institute
Editing: Zhanna Grebenshchykova
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